Title: Exploring a guided, silent reading intervention: Effects on struggling third-grade readers’ achievement
Authors: D. Ray Reutzel, Yaacov Petscher, and Alexandra N. Spichtig
Publication: The Journal of Educational Research Volume 105, Issue 6, September 2012, pp. 404-15
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a supplementary, guided, silent reading intervention with 80 struggling third-grade readers who were retained at grade level as a result of poor performance on the reading portion of a criterion referenced state assessment. The students were distributed in 11 elementary schools in a large, urban school district in the state of Florida. A matched, quasi-experimental design was constructed using propensity scores for this study.
Students in the guided, silent reading intervention, Reading Plus®, evidenced higher, statistically significant mean scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) criterion assessment measure of reading at posttest. The effect size, favoring the guided, silent reading intervention group was large, one full standard deviation, when comparing the two comparison groups’ mean posttest scores. As such, this study indicates a large advantage for providing struggling third-grade readers guided silent reading fluency practice in a computer-based practice environment.
Title: The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting
Authors: Timothy Rasinski, S. Jay Samuels, Elfrieda Hiebert, and Yaacov Petscher
Publication: Reading Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 75-97
Summary: The study examined a large-scale implementation of Reading Plus® to validate the effects as well as the feasibility of deployment of Reading Plus® within a wide range of school settings. A total of 16,143 students from grades 4 through 10 in 23 schools in Regions II and III in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools participated in the study.
Findings: Results indicated that students participating in Reading Plus® for a minimum of 40 or more lessons over approximately six months made significantly greater gains on both the criterion-referenced and norm-referenced reading tests that are part of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) than students who did not participate in the program. Positive results also were demonstrated for various subpopulations often considered at risk for reading difficulties. African-American, Latino-American, special education, and learning disabled students who participated in the Reading Plus® intervention demonstrated significantly and substantially greater gains in measures of reading achievement on both the CRT and NRT portions of the FCAT than students not participating in the intervention.
Title: The Effect of the Reading Plus® Program on Reading Skills in Second Graders
Authors: John Shelley-Tremblay and Joshua Eyer
Publication: Journal of Behavioral Optometry, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009
Summary: The study assessed gains in reading skills and oculomotor efficiency in second graders in a public school in Woodland, TX.
Findings: Results demonstrated that Reading Plus® produced significantly larger gains than randomly assigned controls in comprehension and word knowledge in normally achieving second graders. These results suggest that, in addition to the findings of Solan and collaborators using poor readers, normal and above-average readers in a normal classroom setting can benefit significantly from the addition of Reading Plus® to their school curriculum. Analysis of the Visagraph data demonstrated that measures of ocular efficiency were significant predictors of changes in reading skills.
Title: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction
Publication: Report of the National Reading Panel, Report of the Sub-Groups (MIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000
Summary: The report reviewed and assessed scientific research on reading instruction conducted by the National Reading Panel and various other researchers. In the chapter on fluency, it describes how eye-movement research in the past “has provided a perspective from which to observe the fluent reading process.” Through studies of eye-movement measures by Stanford E. Taylor, founder and chairman of Reading Plus®/Taylor Associates, and other researchers, it was found that fluent readers make fewer fixations, shorter duration of fixations, and fewer regressions than those of poor readers. Taylor’s norms for oculomotor behavior with over 12,000 students were cited.
Link to Article: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.cfm
Title: Evaluation of an Eye-Movement Recording Technique in a Population of Autistic Children
Authors: Darrel G. Schlange, Janice E. Scharre, and Brian Caden
Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 74, poster 27, 1997
Summary: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taylor Associate's Visagraph II for recording fixations and saccades in autistic children.
Findings: The study suggested that this technique has clinical value for evaluating eye-movement skills in a population of autistic children. Guidelines are provided to assist the clinician in interpreting the results and integrating them with data from other members of the interdisciplinary team.